Friday, August 3, 2012

Clinical Chemistry 3 Endocrinology-Toxicology Exams Review Questions

Clinical Chemistry 3 Endocrinology-Toxicology Exams

1.       The process called when the unbound portion of medication moved from higher drug concentration(blood stream) to lower drug concentration( tissues)  until the balance reach between two areas is called _____________________________________________

2.        When the patent on a specific pharmacologic agent expires, other companies are free to manufacture the drug and market it under their own name called ________________________

3.        The time required for the concentration of the drug to decrease by 50% is called___________________

4.       Prolong use of one or more drugs may stimulate the formation of more of  particular enzyme systems by the liver is a process known as _____________________________

5.       The action of (chemical  drug) _______________________ are to blocked the amino acid incorporation into the growing protein chain thereby lowering the amount of protein manufactured and causing the bacteria to misread the genetic code, resulting in the production of “incorrect proteins”.

6.       The action of  ( drug) ________________________ is to lowered the heart’s ability to conduct an electric current and its contraction decreases resulting to cardiac rhythm stabilizes.

7.       ___________________________(class of drug) act by blocking the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by the presynaptic nerve endings.

8.       The active ingredients of aspirin is _____________________________

9.       The response of any patient to drug treatment is highly _______________ and variable one depending on age, physical condition, genetic makeup, patients differ in response  to the same medication
10.   _________________________ are substances  in the blood that cross react with antibody to digoxin due to expansion of the blood volume ,increase in blood pressure, acromegaly, renal impairment ,liver disease,  pregnancy which disappear from circulation 24 h after delivery
11.   The net effect of the high protein binding and the uptake of tissues is a low level of _____________________________  in the circulation

12.    ________________________________ is a salt which is quickly absorbed into the circulation after oral admin that is used for the treatment of the of manic-depressive (bipolar illness).

13.    __________________________is an assay technique that has the ability to measure amount of parent drug and metabolites simultaneously, allowing quantitation of all significant contributors to the therapeutic effect.
14.    ________________________________ of urine is often utilized for emergency treatment of salicylate toxicity.

15.    _________________________  is a significant metabolite of the drug theophylline in newborns and small children, monitoring for the presence and amount of this metabolite can be useful.

16.    As with all TDM, sampling time must be consistent and the most preferred specimen is the ___________________________________, collected at the end of the dosing interval.

17.   One of the most prominent gene families that affect drug metabolism is the _____________________   family. It is an enzyme within the mixed function oxidase  system . It encodes a family of liver enzymes that metabolizes many drugs.

18.   The biochemical pathway responsible for a large portion of drug metabolism is the _________________________system. The basic function of this system involves taking hydrophobic substances and, through a series of enzymatic reactions, converting them into    

19.    __________________________substances facilitating easier absorption into the tissues and elimination by the kidneys

20.   ______________________________________ involves the analysis, assessment, and evaluation of circulating concentrations of drugs in serum, plasma, or whole blood. The purpose of these actions is to ensure that a given drug dosage produces maximal therapeutic benefit and minimal toxic adverse effects.

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