Thursday, June 28, 2018

Answers to Review Questions in Thyroid Function and Abnormalities

1.    How are T3 and T4 formed?

T3 is formed from the combination of 1 diidothyronine and 1 monoiodothyronine, while T4 is formed by the combination of 2 diiodothyronine molecules.

2.    What's more biologically active between T3 and T4?

Although total T4 is more elevated in the blood stream, T3 is more biologically active because it has more free forms than T3. The free forms are responsible for the activity of the hormone in the body.

3.    What would be a more reliable test between T3 and T4 to test Thyroid Function?

Both can be performed, including TSH to determine thyroid function.

4.    What other tests can be performed for TFT (Thyroid Function Test)?

TSH test and T3 uptake test. Also, FT3, FT4.

5.    What abnormalities can result from insufficient or elevated T3 and T4?

Hyperthyroidism – elevated T3 and T4; decreased TSH
Hypothyroidism – low T3 and T4; increased TSH

Thursday, June 14, 2018



1.    In the quantitative test, why is there a need to test a 24 hr. urine specimen?
2.    How can you detoxify urine in patient's preparation for HCG determination?
3.    What are the causes of false positive and false negative results?
4.    What normal condition gives positive results to HCG?
5.    In the quantitative determination of HCG why do you have to prepare serial dilution of the urine samples.


Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Review on Thyroid Gland and Abnormalities Slide Show

The thyroid gland is found at the neck portion of the human body. It is the major metabolic gland because it secretes the primary metabolic hormones, T3 and T4. Without Triidothyronine and Thyroxine, your body won't be able to develop properly. See if you can answer these questions first, before proceeding to the slides.Write your answers on a sheet of paper, so you can check them later.

Review Questions in Thyroid Function and Abnormalities

1. How are T3 and T4 formed?
2. What's more biologically active between T3 and T4?
3. What would be a more reliable test between T3 and T4 to test Thyroid Function?
4. What other tests can be performed for TFT (Thyroid Function Test)?
5. What abnormalities can result from insufficient or elevated T3 and T4?

 Now, Let's see if your answers are correct. Check here for the answers to Thyroid Function Test

Answers will be posted next week.

Sunday, April 29, 2018

Med Tech Research Topics

Med Tech Research topics seem to be difficult to formulate because there are studies on almost any topic. In searching for thesis topics for medical technology, you have to evaluate first your field of interest. Is it Microbiology, Immunology-Serology, Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Clinical Microscopy, or Blood Banking?

Laboratory Pipets

From there, you have to find a missing aspect, or needed information that people would want to know. It doesn’t need to be complex. A simple study done reliably is more significant than a complex study conducted halfheartedly.

Your study must be able to give answers to existing questions, or add new information to current facts. Don’t copy titles or content to avoid being charged with plagiarism. Conduct your own study and learn, while discovering new knowledge. If there are studies that needed more in-depth research, then you can also do a follow-up research.

Examples of General Med Tech Research Topics are:

1. Correlations of Blood Substances to each other; example: cholesterol and uric acid; HDL and potassium

2. Quality Control parameters and confirmatory methods

3. Laboratory Waste Disposal of big hospitals (Choose one and research how they dispose of their garbage) Find the answer to whatever inadequacies they have in their system.)

4. Research on the accuracy of a new method

5. Study the bioactivity of specific plants (you can base this on folklore, but use empirical/scientific methods to confirm the claims)

6. Compare the efficacy of certain drugs against a common disease

7. Conduct a records’ survey/review of certain aspects and analyze them. This should be within the span of several years.

8. Create a new laboratory method or machine for testing certain substances. You can also visit the following sites to read more about Med Tech Research topics and thesis titles.

Topics for Medical Technology Research Papers 

Student Thesis Titles

Silliman University Ranks 1 in Med Tech Research Paper

You may also want to conduct community surveys on what common problems regarding health do the residents have experienced.

Go to the library and browse past and ongoing research papers.

Go online and surf. Read other research papers/studies.

Visit hospitals and laboratories, and find out what problems they encounter. Find the answers to these problems.

Take note that your research must be able to contribute something substantial to your profession or to the allied medical field, or to society in general.

Good luck.

Friday, April 6, 2018

What is the Difference between Urine Creatinine and Serum Creatinine? Know Your Lab Test

Patients undergoing kidney assessment ask the difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine. Although both tests are done in the laboratory, they differ in many aspects. It is important to know each of them so that you can prepare correctly during your laboratory visit.

What sample is used for the test of Urine Creatinine and Serum Creatinine?

The first difference between urine creatine and serum creatine is the sample used for the test. Obviously, urine creatinine requires you to collect urine sample. However, this is not the same as the routine urinalysis that you know. Since the test measures the amount of creatinine, you need to carefully collect your urine sample for 24 hours.

 If you are not informed about this difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine, you might not be able to bring your sample correctly. Urine 24-hour collection means placing all your pee in a single container for the next 24 hours, including the whole day and night. The laboratory usually provides you with the appropriate vessel with preservatives in it to keep your urine stable during the whole collection.

If it is not provided, you can use a clean bottle and keep the urine in a cooler to prevent bacterial decomposition. To ensure that you get the correct difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine, record the time you started your collection, collect all urine and end on the same time the following day. Be sure not to spill any urine and do not miss out any portion of it. For serum creatinine, blood is the sample required.

Your medical technologist collects blood from you so there is no much hassle involved on your part. On the day of your examination, just go to the laboratory and have yourself prepared for the blood extraction. There is no need to fast since there is no difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine in terms of patient preparation. Just expect a slight but tolerable pain during the needle insertion.

If you have allergies to latex, fear of needle, fainting tendencies or any other concerns, verbalize them to your health care provider.

Why is serum creatinine and urine creatinine requested?

The indication for the request is another important difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine. Serum creatinine measures the amount of the substance in the blood. Levels coincide with kidney damage. This is the reason why doctors request for the test for assessment of kidney functions.

However, it is not requested on its own because it is not highly sensitive in diagnosing early stages of kidney problems. Most physicians also request other kidney function tests like Blood Urea Nitrogen. Urine creatinine is requested to get what is called as the Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR).

It represents how well the kidneys are able to clear substances in the body. In easier terms, it tells you the filtration ability of your organs. Remember your anatomy class in school? Your teacher told you that kidneys filter the blood and remove toxic substances through the urine. Those substances include creatinine.

By measuring urine creatinine, your doctor can have a rough assessment on how good are your organs in cleaning your blood. However, a single test does not lead to a definite diagnosis. Your health care provider confirms it by requesting additional tests.

What is the NORMAL VALUE for urine creatinine and serum creatinine?

Because there is a difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine, their normal values also differ. Each laboratory can set their reference range but the slight differences usually do not matter. Generally, the values are set based on gender. Women have lower levels compared with men because they have a lower muscle mass. Serum creatinine is 0.6 to 1.1 mg/dL in women and 0.7-1.3 mg/dL in men.

What is creatinine?

Now that you know the difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine, your next goal is to know what creatinine is all about. Creatine is a byproduct of muscle metabolism and it is constantly being removed from the body through the urine.

Everyone has creatinine in their blood but abnormal rise is see in kidney problems. But apart from this, the difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine occurs during muscle injury, diet rich in protein and meat, and use of some drugs.

Thus, it is important that you inform your health care provider if you are taking any drugs or you are on a special diet. During the interpretation on the difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine, your doctor also considers your age and body size. These variables also affect the normal values and thus, may affect the interpretation.

Overall, apart from the sample used and normal values, the difference between urine creatinine and serum creatinine is not critical. For as long as you follow your doctor’s order during the test, you are sure that you will get the most accurate results.





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